Reading Time: 5 minutes

Reports generally involve presenting your investigation and analysis of information or an issue, recommending actions and making proposals.

Main Sections of a Report

Title Section

This includes the name of the author(s) and the date of report preparation.


The major points, conclusions, and recommendations need to be summarised. It needs to be short as it is a general overview of the report. Some people will read the summary and only skim the report, so make sure you include all the relevant information. It would be best to write this last so you will include everything, even the points that might be added at the last minute.


The first page of the report needs to have an introduction. You will explain the problem and show the reader why the report is being made. You need to define terms if you did not include these in the title section and explain how the details of the report are arranged.


This is the main section of the report. There need to be several sections, each with a subtitle. Information is usually arranged in order of importance, with the most important information coming first.


This is where everything comes together. Keep this section jargon-free, as most people will read the Summary and Conclusion.


This is what needs to be done. Explain your recommendations in plain English, putting them in order of priority.


This includes information that the experts in the field will read. It has all the technical details that support your conclusions.

There are different types of reports, including business, scientific and research reports, but the basic steps for writing them are the same. These are outlined below.

      1. Decide on the ‘Terms of Reference’
      2. Decide on the procedure
      3. Find the information
      4. Decide on the structure
      5. Draft the first part of your report
      6. Analyse your findings and draw conclusions
      7. Make recommendations
      8. Draft the executive summary and table of contents
      9. Compile a reference list
      10. Revise your draft report

Terms of Reference

To decide on the terms of reference for your report, read your instructions and any other information you’ve been given about the report, and think about the purpose of the report:

    • What is it about
    • What exactly is needed
    • Why is it needed
    • When do I need to do it
    • Who is it for, or who is it aimed at

This will help you draft your Terms of Reference.


This means planning your investigation or research and how you’ll write the report. Ask yourself:

    • What information do I need
    • Do I need to do any background reading
    • What articles or documents do I need
    • Do I need to contact the library for assistance
    • Do I need to interview or observe people
    • Do I have to record data
    • How will I go about this

Answering these questions will help you draft the procedure section of your report, which outlines the steps you’ve taken to carry out the investigation.

Gather Information

The next step is to find the information you need for your report. To do this, you may need to read written material, observe people or activities, and talk to people.

Make sure the information you find is relevant and appropriate. What you find will form the basis, or main body, of your report—the findings.


Reports generally have a similar structure, but some details may differ. How they differ usually depends on:

    • The type of report—whether it is a research report, laboratory report, business report, investigative report, etc.
    • How formal does the report have to be
    • The length of the report

Depending on the type of report, the structure can include:

    • A title page
    • Executive summary.
    • Contents
    • An introduction
    • Terms of Reference
    • Procedure
    • Findings
    • Conclusions
    • Recommendations
    • References/Bibliography
    • Appendices

The sections of a report usually have headings and subheadings, which are usually numbered.

Draft First Part

Once you have your structure, write down the headings and start filling these in with the information you have gathered so far. By now, you should be able to draft the terms of reference, procedure and findings and start working out what will go in the report’s appendix.


The findings result from your reading, observations, interviews, and investigation and form the basis of your report. Depending on the type of report you are writing, you may also wish to include photos, tables, or graphs to make it more readable and/or easier to follow.


As you write your draft, decide what information will go in the appendix. These are used for information that is too long to include in the body of the report or supplements or complements the information in the report.


In the conclusion, you analyse your findings and interpret what you have found. To do this, read through your findings and ask yourself:

    • What have I found
    • What’s significant about my findings
    • What do my findings suggest

Your conclusion may describe how the information you collected explains why the situation occurred, what this means for the organisation, and what will happen if it continues (or doesn’t continue). However, refrain from including any new information in the conclusion.


Recommendations are what you think the solution to the problem is and what you think should happen next. To help you decide what to recommend:

    • Reread your findings and conclusions
    • Think about what you want the person who asked for the report to do or not do; what actions should they take
    • Check that your recommendations are practical and logically based on your conclusions
    • Ensure you include enough detail for the reader to know what needs to be done and who should do it

Your recommendations should be written as a numbered list and ordered from most to least important.

Executive Summary

Some reports require an executive summary and a list of contents. Even though these two sections come near the beginning of the report, you won’t be able to complete them until you have finished it and finalised your structure and recommendations.

An executive summary is usually about 100 words long. It tells the readers what the report is about and summarises the recommendations.

Reference List

This is a list of all the sources you’ve referred to in the report.

Revise Draft

It is always important to revise your work. Things you need to check include:

If you have done what you were asked to do, check the assignment question, the instructions/guidelines, and the marking schedule to make sure:

    • That the required sections are included and in the correct order
    • That your information is accurate, with no gaps
    • If your argument is logical, does the information you present support your conclusions and recommendations
    • That all terms, symbols and abbreviations used have been explained
    • That any diagrams, tables, graphs and illustrations are numbered and labelled
    • That the formatting is correct, including your numbering, headings, are consistent throughout the report
    • That the report reads well and that your writing is as clear and effective as possible

You might need to prepare several drafts before you are satisfied.