Reports generally involve presenting your investigation and analysis of information or an issue, recommending actions and making proposals.

Main Sections of a Report

  • Title Section – This includes the name of the author(s) and the date of report preparation.
  • Summary – There needs to be a summary of the major points, conclusions, and recommendations. It needs to be short as it is a general overview of the report. Some people will read the summary and only skim the report, so make sure you include all the relevant information. It would be best to write this last so you will include everything, even the points that might be added at the last minute.
  • Introduction – The first page of the report needs to have an introduction.  You will explain the problem and show the reader why the report is being made. You need to define terms if you did not include these in the title section, and explain how the details of the report are arranged.
  • Body – This is the main section of the report.  There need to be several sections, with each having a subtitle.  Information is usually arranged in order of importance with the most important information coming first.
  • Conclusion – This is where everything comes together. Keep this section free of jargon as most people will read the Summary and Conclusion.
  • Recommendations – This is what needs to be done. In plain English, explain your recommendations, putting them in order of priority.
  • Appendices – This includes information that the experts in the field will read. It has all the technical details that support your conclusions.

There are different types of reports, including business, scientific and research reports, but the basic steps for writing them are the same. These are outlined below.

    1. Decide on the ‘Terms of reference’
    2. Decide on the procedure
    3. Find the information
    4. Decide on the structure
    5. Draft the first part of your report
    6. Analyse your findings and draw conclusions
    7. Make recommendations
    8. Draft the executive summary and table of contents
    9. Compile a reference list
    10. Revise your draft report

Terms of Reference

To decide on the terms of reference for your report, read your instructions and any other information you’ve been given about the report, and think about the purpose of the report:

    • What is it about?
    • What exactly is needed?
    • Why is it needed?
    • When do I need to do it?
    • Who is it for, or who is it aimed at?
    • This will help you draft your Terms of reference.

Procedure

This means planning your investigation or research, and how you’ll write the report. Ask yourself:

    • What information do I need?
    • Do I need to do any background reading?
    • What articles or documents do I need?
    • Do I need to contact the library for assistance?
    • Do I need to interview or observe people?
    • Do I have to record data?
    • How will I go about this?

Answering these questions will help you draft the procedure section of your report, which outlines the steps you’ve taken to carry out the investigation.

Gather Information

The next step is to find the information you need for your report. To do this you may need to read written material, observe people or activities, and/or talk to people.

Make sure the information you find is relevant and appropriate. What you find out will form the basis, or main body, of your report – the findings.

Structure

Reports generally have a similar structure, but some details may differ. How they differ usually depends on:

The type of report – if it is a research report, laboratory report, business report, investigative report, etc.

    • How formal the report has to be.
    • The length of the report.
    • Depending on the type of report, the structure can include:
    • A title page.
    • Executive summary.
    • Contents.
    • An introduction.
    • Terms of reference.
    • Procedure.
    • Findings.
    • Conclusions.
    • Recommendations.
    • References/Bibliography.
    • Appendices.

The sections of a report, usually have headings and subheadings, which are usually numbered

Draft First Part

Once you have your structure, write down the headings and start to fill these in with the information you have gathered so far. By now you should be able to draft the terms of reference, procedure and findings, and start to work out what will go in the report’s appendix.

Findings

The findings are the result of your reading, observations, interviews and investigation. They form the basis of your report. Depending on the type of report you are writing, you may also wish to include photos, tables or graphs to make your report more readable and/or easier to follow.

Appendices

As you are writing your draft decide what information will go in the appendix. These are used for information that is too long to include in the body of the report, or supplements or complements the information in the report.

Analyse

The conclusion is where you analyse your findings and interpret what you have found. To do this, read through your findings and ask yourself:

    • What have I found?
    • What’s significant or important about my findings?
    • What do my findings suggest?

Your conclusion may describe how the information you collected explains why the situation occurred, what this means for the organisation, and what will happen if the situation continues (or doesn’t continue). Don’t include any new information in the conclusion.

Recommendations

Recommendations are what you think the solution to the problem is and/or what you think should happen next. To help you decide what to recommend:

    • Reread your findings and conclusions.
    • Think about what you want the person who asked for the report should to do or not do; what actions should they carry out?
    • Check that your recommendations are practical and are based logically on your conclusions.
    • Ensure you include enough detail for the reader to know what needs to be done and who should do it.

Your recommendations should be written as a numbered list, and ordered from most to least important.

Executive Summary

Some reports require an executive summary and/or list of contents. Even though these two sections come near the beginning of the report you won’t be able to do them until you have finished it, and have your structure and recommendations finalised.

An executive summary is usually about 100 words long. It tells the readers what the report is about, and summarise the recommendations.

Reference List

This is a list of all the sources you’ve referred to in the report.

Revise Draft

It is always important to revise your work. Things you need to check to include:

    • If you have done what you were asked to do. Check the assignment question, the instructions/guidelines and the marking schedule to make sure.
    • That the required sections are included and are in the correct order.That your information is accurate, with no gaps.
    • If your argument is logical. Does the information you present support your conclusions and recommendations?
    • That all terms, symbols and abbreviations used have been explained.
    • That any diagrams, tables, graphs and illustrations are numbered and labelled.
    • That the formatting is correct, including your numbering, headings, are consistent throughout the report.
    • That the report reads well, and your writing is as clear and effective as possible.

You might need to prepare several drafts before you are satisfied.

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Devika Panikar has been teaching English Language and Literature for 14 years now. She is an Assistant Professor with the Directorate of Collegiate Education under the Government of Kerala. She teaches at the Government Colleges coming under this directorate and is now posted at the Department of English, H.H. The Maharaja’s Government College for Women, Thiruvananthapuram. This website is a collection of the lecture notes that she prepared by referring various sources, for her students’ perusal. It has been compiled here for the sake of future generations.

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