Teaching is a complex task. The different steps constituting the teaching process are called the phases of teaching.
Phases of Teaching
The teaching process can be divided into three phases-
- Pre-active phase
- Interactive phase
- Post-active phase
The pre-active phase of teaching is the phase of planning. The interactive phase of teaching refers to the execution of the plan made during the pre-active phase. This is the actual classroom teaching. The post-active phase of teaching is the evaluation phase of teaching.
Good lesson planning is the key to successful teaching. It is the most significant component of teaching. Before teaching, the teacher has to consider the aims and objectives of the subject, the needs and interests of his pupils, the environmental situations, etc. The following principles will help a teacher plan for a session and execute it successfully.
- General Principles
- Psychological Principles
Principle of definite objectives
Before teaching, the teacher should fix some objectives based on which she can select appropriate materials, methods, etc., to achieve them.
Principle of model presentation
A teacher in a classroom must be a model not only in imparting content knowledge but also in helping her students to come out as worthy citizens.
Principle of the selection of material
Every material selected by the teacher must be according to the aims and objectives of teaching and also must suit the mental level of the students.
Principle of gradation
The teacher must plan and grade the selected materials, with one coming first and the other at the end.
Principle of activity
A teacher must plan the teaching-learning strategies in such a way that it maximizes student participation.
Principle of correlation
A teacher must plan her classroom activities by correlating them to real life.
Principle of child-centeredness
The teaching-learning process must be child-centred. Proper education can be acquired only through activity and experience.
Principle of co-operation
The co-operation of the teacher, the taught, the parents and the head of the institution form the basis of efficient teaching-learning.
Principle of individual differences
The teacher expects and accepts the students’ differences and will plan her sessions to cater to their needs.
The psychological principles are framed by considering the students’ interests, aptitudes, abilities, mental levels, age and potential.
Principle of motivation
The teacher must design the whole session to motivate the students towards the topic. Using audio-visual aids, keeping variety in classroom activities, asking questions to check previous knowledge, and linking the material to be learnt to meet future life needs can all create motivation.
Principle of repetition and exercise
Through revision recapitalisation application and of what has been taught, the teacher can give maximum exercise to reinforce what she had trained as language is a skill subject. Constant practice is required on the part of students.
Principle of feedback and reinforcement
During a teaching-learning session, the teacher must give positive reinforcement to the students. Feedback helps the student to know his drawbacks and then plan for re-learning.
Principle of Variety
The teacher should experiment with different methods and innovative strategies to make learning more effective and exciting.
Principle of rest and recreation
The need for rest and intervals between sessions and the allocation of periods according to the nature of the subject have a crucial role in removing boredom in the classroom.
Principle of readiness
If, in a session, the teacher feels that the students are not ready or in a non-attentive mode to learn, her first duty is to make them both mentally and physically prepared.
Principle of fostering creativity
The teacher must identify the individual differences in her class and must encourage all types of students.
Principle of sympathy and co-operation
During teaching, the teacher should possess a sympathetic attitude towards her students. She must be accessible and approachable to her students.
Principle of self-learning
A teacher should appreciate and encourage the efforts of self-learning in her students.
Principle of group dynamics
The teacher should plan and promote group activities in her class, as children learn better in groups.
Factors that influence planning are the learner, the teacher, the syllabus, the activities, the skills, the infrastructural facilities of the institution, the subject, etc.
Defining a Lesson Plan
A lesson plan is “an outline of the important points of a lesson arranged in the order in which they are to be presented.” A lesson may be defined as a compact portion of the curriculum to be transacted within a period.
Advantages of Planning a Lesson
- ensures a definite aim for each day’s work
- makes the work regular and systematic
- creates self-confidence in the teacher
- ensures appropriate use of aids at the proper time
- prevents wastage of time
- necessitates planning of assignments relevant to the mental level of students
- establishes a reasonable connection between different lessons and thereby ensures continuity
The Focus of a Good Lesson Plan
- objectives, particular objective
- thorough content analysis
- strategies for creating a strong motivation
- the broad frame of instructional strategies
- selection of appropriate teaching aids
- a suggestive list of activities for learners
- well-thought-out items for evaluating learning
- indications regarding blackboard work
- indication regarding the final review