Teaching is a complex task. The different steps constituting the process of teaching are called the phases of teaching.

Phases of Teaching

Teaching process can be divided into three phases-

    1. Pre-active phase
    2. Interactive phase
    3. Post-active phase

The pre-active phase of teaching is the phase of planning. The interactive phase of teaching refers to the execution of the plan made during the pre-active phase. This is the actual classroom teaching. The post-active phase of teaching is the evaluation phase of teaching.

Good lesson planning is the key to successful teaching. It is the most significant component of teaching. Before teaching, the teacher has to keep in mind the aims, objectives of the subject, needs and interests of his pupils, the environmental situations etc. Following principles will help a teacher in planning for a session and executing it successfully.

    • General Principles
    • Psychological Principles

A. General Principles

  1. Principle of definite objectives
    Before teaching, the teacher should fix up some objectives based on which she can select appropriate materials, methods, etc. to achieve them.
  2. Principle of model presentation
    A teacher in a classroom must be a model not only in imparting content knowledge but also in helping her students to come out as worthy citizens.
  3. Principle of the selection of material
    Every material selected by the teacher must be according to the aims and objectives of teaching and also must suit the mental level of the students.
  4. Principle of gradation
    The teacher must plan and grade the selected materials to which one must come first and which one at the end.
  5. Principle of activity
    A teacher must plan the teaching-learning strategies in such a way that it maximizes student participation.
  6. Principle of correlation
    A teacher must plan her classroom activities by correlating it to real life.
  7. Principle of child centeredness
    Teaching-learning process must be child-centred. True education can be acquired only through activity and experience.
  8. Principle of co-operation
    The co-operation of the teacher, the taught, the parents and the head of the institution form the basis of efficient teaching-learning.
  9. Principle of individual differences
    The teacher expects and accepts the individual difference among the students and will plan her sessions to cater to their needs.

B. Psychological Principles

The psychological principles are framed by keeping in mind the interest, aptitudes, abilities, mental level, age and potential of the students.

  1. Principle of motivation
    The teacher must design the whole session so that the students are motivated towards the topic. Using audio-visual aids, keeping variety in classroom activities, asking questions to check previous knowledge, linking the material to be learnt to meet future life needs, all can create motivation.
  2. Principle of repetition and exercise
    Through revision recapitalisation application and of what has been taught the teacher can give maximum exercise to reinforce what she had taught as language is a skill subject constant practice is required on the part of students.
  3. Principle of feedback and reinforcement
    During a teaching-learning session, the teacher must give positive reinforcement to the students. Feedback helps the student to know his drawbacks and then plan for re-learning.
  4. Principle of variety
    The teacher should experiment with different methods and innovative strategies so that learning becomes more effective and interesting.
  5. Principle of rest and recreation
    The need for rest and intervals in between sessions and the allocation of periods according to the nature of the subject has a crucial role in removing boredom in the classroom.
  6. Principle of readiness
    If in a session, the teacher feels that the students are not ready or in a non-attentive mode to learn, her first duty is to make them both mentally and physically ready.
  7. Principle of fostering creativity
    The teacher must identify the individual difference in her class and must encourage all type of students.
  8. Principle of sympathy and co-operation
    During teaching, the teacher should possess a sympathetic attitude towards her students. She must be free and approachable to her students.
  9. Principle of self-learning
    A teacher should appreciate and encourage the efforts of self-learning in her students.
  10. Principle of group dynamics
    The teacher should plan and promote group activities in her class, as children learn better in groups.

Factors which influence planning are the learner, the teacher, the syllabus, the activities, the skills, the infrastructural facilities of the institution, the subject, etc.

Defining a Lesson Plan

A lesson plan is “an outline of the important points of a lesson arranged in the order in which they are to be presented.” A lesson may be defined as a compact portion of the curriculum, to be transacted within the duration of a period.

Advantages of Planning a Lesson

    1. ensures a definite aim for each day’s work
    2. makes the work regular and systematic
    3. creates self-confidence in the teacher
    4. ensures appropriate use of aids at the appropriate time
    5. prevents wastage of time
    6. necessitates planning of assignments appropriate to the mental level of students
    7. establishes a proper connection between different lessons and thereby ensures continuity

Focus of a Good Lesson Plan

    1. objectives particularly specific objective
    2. thorough content analysis
    3. strategies for creating a strong motivation
    4. broad frame of instructional strategies
    5. selection of appropriate teaching aids
    6. suggestive list of activities for learners
    7. well thought out items for evaluating learning
    8. indications regarding blackboard work
    9. indication regarding final review
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Devika Panikar has been teaching English Language and Literature for 14 years now. She is an Assistant Professor with the Directorate of Collegiate Education under the Government of Kerala. She teaches at the Government Colleges coming under this directorate and is now posted at the Department of English, H.H. The Maharaja’s Government College for Women, Thiruvananthapuram. This website is a collection of the lecture notes that she prepared by referring various sources, for her students’ perusal. It has been compiled here for the sake of future generations.

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