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Trivandrum
Wednesday, January 27, 2021

The Classics

Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity. It encompasses the study of the Greco-Roman world particularly of its languages and literature....

Writing Advertisements

If you're in business you know that to attract customers and get results, you have to advertise. A great ad attracts attention, generates interest...

Govinda’s Disciple

The poem Govinda’s Disciple by Rabindranath Tagore beautifully highlights the traits of a true master and his disciple who has not been able to...

Advertisements

An advertisement is a kind of public notice asking for or offering services or buying and selling property, goods etc., or providing information about...

Literature and Life

Literature is composed of those books which by their subject matter and mode of treating it are of general human interest and in which...

Essential Components of Communication

In order to better understand the communication process, we can break it down into a series of eight essential components. ...

Writing an Agenda

An effective agenda sets clear expectations for what needs to occur before and during a meeting. It helps team members prepare, allocates time wisely,...

Defining Communication

Communication is a Latin word which means ‘to share’. It is the sharing of information between different individuals. It includes the sharing of ideas,...

More About Ballads

Ballads, as stage performances, enjoyed the status of being one of the main sources of entertainment in ancient times. Legends and historical events were...

Designing an Agenda

Here are some tips for designing an effective agenda for your next meeting. You can use these tips whether a meeting lasts an hour...

Ballad Forms

A ballad is a poem that tells a story, usually (but not always) in four-line stanzas called quatrains. The ballad form is enormously diverse,...

Agenda

An agenda also called a docket or a schedule is a list of topics or activities in the order they are to be taken...

Ballads

Ballad is a popular narrative song passed down orally. Folk (or traditional) ballads are anonymous and recount tragic, comic, or heroic stories with an...

Types of Formal Letters

Letter of Enquiry The agenda behind writing this letter is to collect information about something or someone. Here you should mention why you expect the...

Formal Letters

We live in a world of technology backed communication. E-mails, texts, etc are most of our preferred modes of communication. However, letters still have...

Usage of Adverbs

An adverb is a word that’s used to give information about a verb, adjective, or another adverb. ...

Dramatic Monologue

Monologue refers to a speech or a verbal presentation that a character gives to exhibit his ideas as well as thoughts in a loud...

Informal Letters

An informal letter also referred to as a friendly letter, is a personal letter written to friends or relatives (Informal letter to a friend)....

Levels of Aesthetic Distance

Aesthetic distance, the frame of reference that an artist creates by the use of technical devices in and around the work of art is...

Letter Writing Tips

The art of writing a letter was considered an important requirement. Here are some tips for writing a good letter. Identify the Type This obviously is...

Aesthetic Distance

Aesthetics is a word that comes from the ancient Greeks. It is used to describe the relationship between art and one's perceptions of beauty....

The Cenci

The Cenci, A Tragedy, in Five Acts is a verse drama in five acts by Percy Bysshe Shelley written in the summer of 1819...

Letter Writing

Before the advent of modern technology made communication so easy, the art of writing a letter was considered an important requirement. Even today a...

Recent Trends in TG

There have been numerous changes in transformational grammar from the seventies onwards. Some of the important aspects of these changes are: ...

Meeting Minutes Writing

Meeting minutes, or MOM (for minutes of the meeting) can be defined as the written record of everything that's happened during a meeting. They're...

Adverbialisation

Adverbialisation is the process of forming sentences with Adverbs and Adverbial Clauses in them. In adverbial clauses there are Sentence adjuncts and Predicate Phrase...

Structuring a Report

Reports generally involve presenting your investigation and analysis of information or an issue, recommending actions and making proposals. Main Sections of a Report ...

Placement of Adverbs

Putting the adverb in the wrong spot can produce an awkward sentence at best and completely change the meaning at worst. Place adverbs as...

Complement Clause Transformations

Complement Clause The Complement clauses ( abbreviated as COMP-clauses) are commonly defined as subordinate clauses functioning as an argument of a predicate. The Complement Clause...

Types of Reports

Reports are well researched, planned and organized documents that are written for a purpose. A report is written for a specific audience; it must...

Complementation

A characteristic property of certain types of sentence embedding in English, the Sentential Complementation, is the deletion of the initial Noun Phrase of the...

Adverb

An adverb is a modifying part of speech. It answers the question when, where, how, how much, how long, or how often. ...

Relativization in Subordination

In transformational grammar, relativization is the process of forming sentences with relative clauses in them. Relativization as a syntactic process, like complementation and coordination...

Report Writing

In academia, there is some overlap between reports and essays, and the two words are sometimes used interchangeably, but reports are more likely to...

Double Based Transformations -Subordination

In generative grammar, embedding is the process by which one clause is included (embedded) in another. This is also known as nesting. More broadly,...

British and American Expressions

There is an old saying that America and Britain are “two nations divided by a common language.” While they are essentially the same, British...

Use of Adjectives

An adjective is a word which qualifies a noun or a pronoun. An adjective can be used in two ways: (1) Attributively: She is a...

Double Based Transformations -Coordination

Double-based Transformations A generative grammar of the type proposed by Chomsky makes use of two types of transformational rules- the singe-base or simple transformations, which...

A Blog Post in Five Easy Steps

Step 1: Plan your blog post by choosing a topic, creating an outline, conducting research, and checking facts. ...

Passivisation

In English grammar, passivisation is the transformation of a sentence from an active form to a passive form. Through the process of passivisation, the...

Adjectives

Adjectives are Noun Modifiers, as they generally describe some aspect of nouns. beautiful good ...

Short Response and Emphasis Transformation

Short Response Transformation In spoken English and informal writing, a short answer is a response made up of a subject and an auxiliary verb or...

Blogging

A blog is a type of website that focuses mainly on written content, also known as blog posts. In popular culture, we most often...

Types of Nouns

Recognising the different types of nouns in English grammar will help to develop one's ability to write and speak with precision. Compound Nouns Compound nouns are...

Tag Question Transformation

The standard or classical, the model of transformational generative grammar posits two levels of representation for sentences, an abstract deep structure of meaning relationships...

Writing an Effective Email

While most of us are happy to write informal emails to friends, we get jittery when asked to write to people whom we are...

Noun Classes

Nouns are described as words that refer to a person, place, thing, event, substance, quality, quantity, etc. The grammatical categories associated with nouns are...

Disambiguation Using TG Grammar

TG grammar attempts to describe actual and potential sentences. It aims at generating all and only sentences of a language. It is able to...

Email Writing

Email stands for electronic mail. It is the easiest and the cheapest way of communication. It is used in formal, semi-formal as well as...

Analysis Using TG Grammar

In English, sentences are always made up of noun phrases (NP) and verb phrases (VP). A noun phrase should always contain at least a noun....

The Transformational Framework

TG grammar makes use of transformations. The transformational component helps to convert structures from one level to another. In TG analysis we start with...

Transformational Rules

Transformational Generative grammar is based on the assumption that sentences are of two types- those with the simplest structures are called the basic or...

Question Tags

A tag question is a special construction in English. It is a statement followed by a mini-question. We use tag questions to ask for...

An Introduction to TG Grammar

Transformational grammar is a theory of grammar that accounts for the constructions of a language by linguistic transformations and phrase structures. It is also...

Barriers to Reading

The major hurdles in developing efficient reading are: Lack of concentration ...

Why Transformational Generative Grammar?

In Syntactic Structures, Chomsky claims that one of the main reasons for preferring a transformational grammar to a phrase structure grammar is that the...

Wh- Question Words

In English grammar, a "wh- word" is one of the function words used to begin a wh- question: what, who, whom, whose, which, when, where, why, and how. Nouns ...

Derivation of a Sentence

A phrase structure grammar is one which consists solely of phrase structure rules, whereas a transformational grammar does not consist only of transformational rules....

Reading

Reading may be defined as the act of receiving meaning from the written form. It is the ability to interpret linguistic sounds in their...

Limitations of Phrase Structure Grammar

The processes that pose problems to PS grammar are: ambiguities synonymies ...

Statement to Question

Turning a statement into a question can seem hard at first, but it will appear easier later. A statement is used to express a...

The Constituent Structure

The PS grammar is an alternative way of expressing the information found in a tree diagram employing rewrite rules. This is a method of...

Writing a Good Essay

An essay is a composition that defends a position or opinion, also called a thesis, that has been put forth by the author. Not...

Phrase Structure Grammar

The second of Chomsky's 'three models for the description of language', is Phrase Structure Grammar. Any set of sentences that can be generated by...

Phrasal Verbs

A phrasal verb is the combination of two or three words from different grammatical categories — a verb and a particle, such as an...

Generative Grammar

Generative grammar, a very formal system is the first of the three models for the description of the language discussed by linguist Noam Chomsky...

The Essay

There are different kinds of essay writing, and each form of essay writing is supposed to follow a unique style and format. The process...

IC Analysis: Advantages and Limitations

The process of IC analysis always ends when the smallest constituents are reached, which are often words although the analysis can also be extended...

Idioms

Every language has its idioms and expressions. They are an integral part of the language. English language too, is rich in idioms. Idioms are...

IC Analysis of Sentences

A single sentence is made up of an NP (subject) and a predicate phrase. This predicate phrase, apart from a compulsory verbal group, may...

Guidelines to Paragraph Writing

Developing an effective paragraph -a combination of sentences joined cohesively together to further a focused topic -requires seven steps. Emily Layfield outlines these easy...

The Gleason Method 

The grammatical constituents in a sentence like Noun Phrase, Verb Phrase, Adverbial and Preposition Phrase can be further divided into categories such as Noun,...

Confusing Words

Everyone knows the problem with spell-check: your word might be spelt right, but it may be the wrong word. It happens all the time....

Labelled IC Analysis

Immediate Constituent analysis aims at analysing each utterance into the smallest meaningful units possible. In this model, we begin by cutting the sentence into...

Strategies in Paragraph Writing

Writing a paragraph means writing a series of sentences related to a single topic. In theory, it sounds simple enough, but finding the right...

Homophone

Homophone is Greek for “same sound.” A homophone can be defined as a word that, when pronounced, seems similar to another word, but has...

Immediate Constituent Analysis

The advent of generative grammar with the publication of Chomsky's monograph Syntactic Structures in 1957 was a scientific revolution. From the beginning, this revolution...

Paragraph Features

A paragraph is a collection of sentences which all relate to one main idea or topic. Good writing in any form has the following...

The Structuralist View of Grammar

The beginning of the 20th century was marked by a new approach to grammar suggested by linguists like Ferdinand de Saussure and American linguists...

One Word Substitutes

One word substitution is the process of using one word for a phrase. As the phrase indicates, they are the words that replace a...

The ‘Bloomfieldians’

Linguistics in the United States has been very strongly influenced by the necessity of describing as many as possible of the hundreds of previously...

Paragraph Writing

Originating from the ancient Greek term paragraphe meaning 'marked passage', a paragraph is a group of sentences that introduces, presents, develops and winds up one main...

Modern Linguisitics: Aims and Attitudes

Linguistics is commonly defined as a science of language. A scientific description is one that is carried out systematically based on objectively verifying observations...

Basic Sentence Patterns

A Basic or a Kernel sentence is the simplest form of sentence which is simple (not complex or compound), declarative and affirmative and is...

The Writing Process

A simple, lucid style of writing is often the product of long years of practice in using the language in the written context of...

Strong and Weak Forms

Words are mainly divided into form class words and function class words. Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives and Adverbs belong to the form class whereas Articles,...

Synonyms

Synonyms are different words with identical or at least similar meanings. Words that are synonyms are said to be synonymous, and the state of...

Poem in October

Poem In October by Dylan Thomas is about a man who has turned 30, and goes out to have a walk, reflecting on life....

Syntax

Syntax is the grammar, structure, or order of the elements in a language statement. (Semantics is the meaning of these elements.) Syntax applies to...

Fundamentals of Writing

Writing may be defined as the physical manifestation of language. A process of recording information using a coded system of symbols. It is a...

Teaching Grammar

There is a strong relationship between grammar, writing instruction and student achievement. Effective grammar instruction is key to increase student achievement and learning. Grammar...

Teaching Prose

Teaching prose is mainly meant to develop the four language skills -Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing. The activities planned by the teacher must allow...

Teaching Poetry

Poetry contains the best and most sublime emotions of the human mind. It is also the most effective means for the purgation of evil...

Hyponymy

In linguistics, a hyponym is a word or phrase whose semantic range is included within that of another word. For example, scarlet, vermilion, carmine,...

Teaching Literature

Literature is the study of the world of imagination where anything is possible and anything can be assumed. Ideas, feelings and experiences expressed through...

The Lesson Plan

Teaching is a complex task. The different steps constituting the process of teaching are called the phases of teaching. Phases of Teaching Teaching process can be...

Alice in Wonderland

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (commonly shortened to Alice in Wonderland) is an 1865 novel written by English author Charles Lutwidge Dodgson under the pseudonym...

Antonymy

Antonyms are words that have contrasting, or opposite meanings. Like so much of the English language, 'antonym' is rooted in the Greek language. The...

Ecclesiastes

Ecclesiastes (often abbreviated Ecc) (Hebrew: תֶלֶה ֹק, Kohelet, variously transliterated as Qoheleth, Göhalath, Koheles, Koheleth, or Coheleth) is a book of the Hebrew Bible....

What I Believe

E.M. Forster is primarily known as a novelist, short story writer and a literary critic of a rare distinction. Though his contribution to English...

Homonym

Aspect of language in which, through historical accident, two or more words may sound and look alike (homonymy proper, as in a farmer's bull...

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