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Devika Panikar

δάσκαλος (dáskalos) means the teacher in Greek. Devika Panikar has been teaching English Language and Literature since 2006. She is an Assistant Professor with the Directorate of Collegiate Education under the Government of Kerala. She teaches at the Government Colleges coming under this directorate and is now posted at the Department of English, Government College for Women, Thiruvananthapuram. This website is a collection of the lecture notes that she prepared by referring to various sources, for her students’ perusal. It has been compiled here for the sake of future generations.


Antonyms are words that have contrasting or opposite meanings. Like so much of the English language, antonym is rooted in the Greek language. The Greek word anti means opposite, while onym means name....


Ecclesiastes is a book of the Hebrew Bible. The Hebrew title of the book is Qohelet, a term related to the verb qāhal, "to gather, assemble." The English name derives from the Greek translation of t...

What I Believe

E M Forster is primarily known as a novelist, short story writer and literary critic of a rare distinction. Though his contribution to English essay is substantial he has not received the critical d...


The aspect of language in which, through historical accident, two or more words may sound and look-alike is homonymy (as in a farmer's bull and a papal bull). Other types of homonymy are homophony (...