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Devika Panikar

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δάσκαλος (dáskalos) means the teacher in Greek. Devika Panikar has been teaching English Language and Literature since 2006. She is an Assistant Professor with the Directorate of Collegiate Education under the Government of Kerala. She teaches at the Government Colleges under this directorate and is now posted at the Government Law College, Thiruvananthapuram. This website is a collection of lecture notes she prepared by referencing various sources for her students’ perusal. It has been compiled here for the sake of future generations.

Limitations of Phrase Structure Grammar

The processes that pose problems to PS grammar are:ambiguities synonymies permutations discontinuous constituents (E.g., particles) remote relationship (E.g., those of cas...

Statement to Question

Turning a statement into a question can seem hard at first, but it will appear easier later. A statement is used to express a fact, opinion, or viewpoint about a topic. On the other hand, questions ar...

The Constituent Structure

The PS grammar is an alternative way of expressing the information found in a tree diagram employing rewrite rules. This is a method of structural description. It specifies the subunits and the level ...

Writing a Good Essay

An essay is a composition that defends a position or opinion, also called a thesis, that has been put forth by the author. Not only should an essay demonstrate your overall knowledge of the broader su...

Phrase Structure Grammar

The second of Chomsky's 'three models for the description of language', is Phrase Structure Grammar. Any set of sentences that can be generated by a finite state grammar can be generated by a phrase s...

Phrasal Verbs

A phrasal verb is the combination of two or three words from different grammatical categories — a verb and a particle, such as an adverb or a preposition — to form a single semantic unit on a lexical ...

Generative Grammar

Generative grammar, a very formal system is the first of the three models for the description of the language discussed by linguist Noam Chomsky in Syntactic Structures. In linguistics, generative gra...

The Essay

There are different kinds of essay writing, and each form of essay writing is supposed to follow a unique style and format. The process of coming up with a good essay is not a child’s play. Some essay...

IC Analysis: Advantages and Limitations

The process of IC analysis always ends when the smallest constituents are reached, which are often words although the analysis can also be extended into words to acknowledge how words are structured. ...

Idioms

Every language has its idioms and expressions. They are an integral part of the language. English language too, is rich in idioms. Idioms are words or phrases that aren’t meant to be taken literally a...