Reading Time: 2 minutes

In English, sentences are always made up of noun phrases (NP) and verb phrases (VP).

A noun phrase should always contain at least a noun. It can also contain a determiner (Det), an adjective, and a prepositional phrase (PP).

A prepositional phrase must always contain a preposition and may contain a noun phrase.

A verb phrase must always contain an Aux (which indicates tense) and the main verb (MV). It may also contain a noun phrase, an adverb and a prepositional phrase.

Let’s analyse some sentences using TG grammar:

  • The teacher bought the books.

Deep Structure: The + teacher + past + buy + the + books
Affix Switch Transformation: The + teacher + buy + past + the books
Surface Structure: The teacher bought the books.

  • A grey snake crawled into the house.

Deep Structure: A + grey + snake + past + crawl + into + the + house
Affix Switch Transformation: A + grey + snake + crawl + past + into + the house
Surface Structure: A grey snake crawled into the house.

  • The small boy ate the cake.

Deep Structure: The + small + boy + past + eat + the + cake
Affix Switch Transformation: The + small + boy + eat + past + the cake
Surface Structure: The small boy ate the cake.

Previous articleThe Transformational Framework
Next articleEmail Writing
Devika Panikar
δάσκαλος (dáskalos) means the teacher in Greek. Devika Panikar has been teaching English Language and Literature since 2006. She is an Assistant Professor with the Directorate of Collegiate Education under the Government of Kerala. She teaches at the Government Colleges under this directorate and is now posted at the Government Law College, Thiruvananthapuram. This website is a collection of lecture notes she prepared by referencing various sources for her students’ perusal. It has been compiled here for the sake of future generations.